10th Class- Carbon and its Compounds Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-2

Class 10th Chapter – Carbon and Its Compounds

 Chemistry of Bonding between Carbon and other atoms

                             Some elements (like halogens, sulpher, oxygen, nitrogen) replace hydrogen from carbon compounds. These elements which replace hydrogen are called as heteroatom.
This heteroatom’s may be present in single or group form and gives specific property to carbon compound and called as functional group. Function group attach to carbon compound by replacing hydrogen atom. 

List of Some Functional Group

Functional Group
Formula of Functional Group
-Cl , -Br, -I
Carboxylic Acid

Homologous Series

                            When same functional group is present on carbon chains of varying length, such series of carbon compounds is known as homologous series.
Example- chemical properties of CH3OH, C2H5OH, C3H7OH and C4H9OH are very similar.

Nomenclature of carbon compounds

                                                          To name any carbon compound just follow below steps-
Step1- Calculate no. of carbon atoms in carbon compound. For example
i.                   If carbon compound have 1 carbon atom then use prefix  Meth
ii.                If carbon compound have 2 carbon atom then use prefix use prefix Eth
iii.             If carbon compound have 3 carbon atom then use prefix Prop
iv.             If carbon compound have 4 carbon atom then use prefix But
v.                If carbon compound have 5 carbon atom then use prefix Pent
vi.             If carbon compound have 6 carbon atom then use prefix Hex
vii.          If carbon compound have 7 carbon atom then use prefix Hept
viii.       If carbon compound have 8carbon atom then use prefix Oct
ix.             If carbon compound have 9 carbon atom then use prefix Non
x.                If carbon compound have 10 carbon atom then use prefix Dec
xi.             If carbon compound have 11 carbon atom then use prefix Undec
xii.          If carbon compound have 12 carbon atom then use prefix Dodec
xiii.       If carbon compound have 13carbon atom then use prefix Tridec
xiv.        If carbon compound have 14 carbon atom then use prefix Tetradec
xv.           If carbon compound have 15 carbon atom then use prefix Pentadec
xvi.        If carbon compound have 20 carbon atom then use prefix Eicos
xvii.     If carbon compound have 30carbon atom then use prefix Triacont
xviii.  If carbon compound have 40carbon atom then use prefix Tetracont
xix.        If carbon compound have 50 carbon atom then use prefix Pentacont
Example- What is the name of CH4,C2H6 ?
Number of carbon atom in CH4 is 1 so use Meth and it is alkane so use ane so its name is Methane
Number of carbon atom in C2H6 is 2 so use Eth and it is alkane so use aneso its name is Ethane.
Step2- if functional group is present in carbon compound then it is indicated by adding a prefix or a suffix for it as shown in below table-
10th class chemistry notes- Nomenclature of functional groups
Nomenclature of functional groups
Step3- if functional group is a suffix then removes ‘e’ from carbon chain name and add suffix.
Example- Propanone = Propan + One
          ‘Propan’ comes from propane – ‘e’ and, ‘one’ comes from ketone.
Step4- if the carbon compound is unsaturated then ‘ane’ from the name is replaced by ‘ene’ or by ‘yne’ for double or triple bond respectively.
Means ane for single bond, ene for double bond and yne for triple bond.

Carbon and its Compounds Part 1

   Carbon and its Compounds Part 3

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