Monthly archives: January, 2015

9 Class- Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure What is an atom? Matter found around us in nature (like iron rod, glass, cup, pen, pencil etc.) is made up from very small particles, which is known as atoms. we also says that “atoms are very small particles which made matter” so atom is fundamental unit of atom. Greek Philosopher, Democritus describe …

Discovery of Neutron

Discovery of Neutron Mass of atom is more than the mass of total proton and electron present in atom, which suggest the presence of another particle in atom which lead the discovery of neutron. Chadwick in 1932 discover neutral particles of mass equal to mass of proton by bombarding beryllium metal with stream of fast moving …

Discovery of Proton

Discovery of Proton As we know electron is negatively (-vely) charged particle but atom is electrically neutral so there should be some particles which have positive (+ve) charge to neutralize negative (-ve) charge electron.In 1886, a German scientist E.Goldstein established the presence of +vely charged particles. These positively charged rays travel from anode to cathode …

Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment

Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment or Determination of charge of electron is conduct by an American Scientist R.A.Millikan, who perform an experiment on the charge on oil drops. R.A.Millikan perform several experiments to calculate charge on oil drops and he gets every time its value equal to -1.6×10-19 coulomb.When these results associated …

Discovery of Electron

Discovery of Electron Sir J.J.Thomson and W.Crooks did many experiments with discharge tube for the discovery of electron. Discharge tube have tube like shape made from glass with two electrodes (Cathode -ve and Anode +ve) in vacuum created by vacuum pump connected to discharge tube. High electric potential is applied between two electrodes.   Discharge …

Baeyer Villiger Oxidation

Baeyer Villiger Oxidation Reaction Baeyer Villiger Oxidation The Baeyer Villiger Oxidation is  a oxidation reaction in which oxidative cleavage of a C-C bond near to a carbonyl group happen, which leads to conversion of ketone to ester or cyclic ketone to lactone. Baeyer Villiger Oxidation may be carried out with peracids like MCBPA or with  …

BSc1Year Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure Atom:           In Greek Atom means not divided. In 1803 john Dalton made a famous theory atomic theory according to this theory “matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.” But in 1897 Sir J.J. Thomson proved experimentally that atoms are made of charged particles called electrons. And in the beginning of …

BSc2Year Chemistry of Elements of First Transition Series

Chemistry of Elements of First Transition Series There are four types of orbital i.e. s, p, d and f. On the basis of electronic configuration- ·         s-block elements : last electron goes in s orbital. ·         p-block elements : last electron goes in p orbital. ·         d-block elements : last electron goes in d orbital. …

BSc2Year Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Thermodynamics                            study of the inter-relations of various forms of energy in a system is called thermodynamics. Limitation of thermodynamics         i.            laws of thermodynamics are not applicable to small particles like individual atoms or molecule, but laws can be applied to …

BSc2Year Electromagnetic spectrum UV and Visible spectroscopy

Spectroscopy                  It is a branch of science which deals with the study of interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation  Electromagnetic Radiations are a certain amount of energy depending upon its wavelength. Hence these radiations are the sources of energy so called as electromagnetic energy or radiant energy. Electromagnetic Radiations are of many …

9 Class Science- Atomic Structure Part 3

Structure of Atom Atomic Number Number of protons present in nucleus of atom of an element is known as atomic number. It is denoted by (z) example : Carbon have 6 protons so its atomic number is 6 (z = 6) For neutral atom,  atomic number (z) = number of protons (p) = number of …

9 Class Science- Atomic Structure Part 2

Atomic Structure Structure of Atom Many atomic models are proposed from time to time to show the actual structure of atom, some of them are described below- 1. Thomson’s atomic model 2. Rutherford’s atomic model 3. Bohr’s atomic model Thomson’s Atomic Model Thomson’s Atomic Model Thomson’s atomic model is first atomic model proposed in 1898 …

Spectroscopy, Electromagnetic Radiations and Types of Spectra

SPECTROSCOPY Spectroscopy :  It is a branch of science which deals with the study of interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation :  Electromagnetic Radiations are a certain amount of energy depending upon its wavelength. Hence these radiations are the sources of energy so called as electromagnetic energy or radiant energy. Electromagnetic Radiations are …

What is Salt

What is Salt In  language of chemistry any compound which is formed as a result of reaction between acid and base (alkali) is known as salt. salt is found in sea water in large quantity. Common Salt is a example of salt, also known as Table Salt. It is a white and forms crystals and …

Chemistry Project

This Chemistry Project contain information on many topics related to chemistry     Working with the Properties & Changes of Matter         Chemical- any substance that has defined composition         Everything you see is made up of chemicals         Even things you cannot see are made up of chemicals         Some exist naturally         Some are …

Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy, spectrophotometer, chromohor, auxochrome, shift, Application of ultraviolet spectroscopy

Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy It is a type of Absorption Spectroscopy in which Electromagnetic Radiation of UV region (l = 200 – 400 nm) or visible region (l = 400 – 800 nm) when passed through a sample containing a multiple bond, a part of incident radiation is absorbed by the sample (compound). Amount of …

9 Class Science- Atomic Structure Part 1

Atomic Structure What is an atom? Matter found around us in nature (like iron rod, glass, cup, pen, pencil etc.) is made up from very small particles, which is known as atoms. we also says that “atoms are very small particles which made matter” so atom is fundamental unit of atom. Greek Philosopher, Democritus describe …

Radioactivity and What is radioactive substances ?

Radio-Activity What is radioactive substances? Substances which emits radiation by there self are known as radioactive substances. What is radioactivity? Phenomenon of radioactive substances to emits radiations is known as radioactivity. What is importance of radioactivity? Radioactive substances (or radioactive isotopes of elements) are useful in many physical and chemical reactions. Useful in determining complex …

What is X rays?

What is X rays?X-Rays are electromagnetic radiation discovered by WK Roentgen in 1895. X rays are also known as Roentgen rays. Why x rays are used in medical science? X rays are used in medical science because x rays have high penetrating power.