Monthly archives: June, 2015

Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom :: Principle Quantum Number ‘n’ , Azimuthal Quantum Number ‘p’ , Magnetic Orbital Quantum Number ‘mi’ , and Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms)

Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom Branches of science which explain duel behavior of Metter is called quantum mechanics . ð Quantum mechanics independently developed by Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger (1926) Fundamental equation developed by Schrodinger (won Nobel Prize 1933) Equation for a system (atom or molecules was energy does not change with time) Principle …

Dual Behaviour of Matter and Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Dual Behaviour of Matter =>  Explain by de Broglie (1924) =>  He explain that matter also behave like radiation and exhibit dual behavior means both like particle and wave like properties . => Relation    Where  l =  wavelength.              m = mass of particle ,              v = velocity of particle,               p = …

Bohr’s model for hydrogen atom and Limitation of Bohr’s model

Bohr’s model for hydrogen atom =>  Explain by nails Bohr (1913). =>  Postulates for Bohr’s modal are, 1.     Electron in hydrogen atom move around nucleus in circular path of fixed radius and energy. these paths are called orbits 2.     Energy of e does not change with time. However, when electron move from lower to higher …

Photo electric effect

Photo Electric Effect =>  given by H. Hertz(1887) =>  When a beam of light strike a metal surface then electrons were ejected. This phenomena is known as photo electric effect. 1.     Electrons ejected from metal surface when beam of  light strike the metal surface 2.     Number of electron ejected is directly proportional to intensity (or …

Wave nature of electromagnetic radiations and Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation

Wave nature of electromagnetic radiations: – First explanation gives by James Maxwell (1870) 1)    Oscillating magnetic & electric fields produced by the oscillating charged particles are perpendicular to each other and both also perpendicular to the wave direction of propagation. 2)    These waves do not require medium i.e. electromagnetic wave can travel in vacuum. 3)    …

11 Class Chapter 5- States Of Matter

States Of Matter ·       Water exists in three state i.e. solid (ice), liquid (portable water), gas (steam, vapors). ·       In these three states water has different physical properties but same chemical composition i.e. H2O ·       Also characteristics of these states of water depend on the molecular energy and how molecules aggregate. ·       As molecules change …

Thomson model of atom and Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom

Thomson model of atom =>  Give by J.J Thomson (1898) =>  According to J.J. Thomson atoms posses a spherical shape with radius about 10-10 m, in which + ve charge is uniformly distributed. =>  Electrons are embedded in such a manner to give most stable electrostatic arrangement. =>  Other names of this model plum pudding …

Atomic Theory of matter, Cathode ray discharge tube experiments and Charge (e) to mass (me) ratio of electron

Atomic  Theory of matter:-                                             According to this theory , atom is the ultimate particle of matter , also known as Dalton’s  Atomic theory (1808). Cathode ray discharge tube experiments: –  1.     Cathode rays start from cathode and move toward anode. 2.     These rays are not visible but there behaviour can be observed with fluorescent …

GATE Syllabus for Chemistry (CY)

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Structure:Quantum theory: principles and techniques; applications to a particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, rigid rotor and hydrogen atom; valence bond and molecular orbital theories, Hückel approximation; approximate techniques: variation and perturbation; symmetry, point groups; rotational, vibrational, electronic, NMR, and ESR spectroscopy Equilibrium: Kinetic theory of gases; First law of thermodynamics, heat, energy, …

Laws of chemical combinations, Dalton’s Atomic Theory and Concentration expression methods

Laws of chemical combinations       1)      Law of conservation of mass:- According to this law “matter can neither be created nor destroyed” Given by Antone Lovoisin in 1789.     2)      Law of definite proportion:– According to this law “A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by weight known as …

Physical State, Classification and Properties of Matter

Physical states of matter => Solid, liquid, gas. Physical state Definite volume Definite shape Example Solid Yes Yes Book, pen Liquid Yes No Water, milk Gas No No CO2, Air Temperature & pressure effect on physical state             Classification of matter: – 1.       Mixture: a.       Homogeneous mixture b.      Heterogeneous mixture 2.       Pure substance: a.       Elements …

CSIR-UGC NET SYLLABUS FOR CHEMICAL SCIENCES PAPER I AND PAPER II

CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship SYLLABUS FOR CHEMICAL SCIENCES PAPER I AND PAPER II    Physical Chemistry : 1. Basic principles and applications of quantum mechanics – hydrogen atom, angular momentum. 2. Variational and perturbational methods. 3. Basics of atomic structure, electronic configuration, shapes of orbitals, hydrogen atom spectra. …

Radioactivity, Penetrating Power, Tracer technique of radioactive isotopes, Various fields of tracer techniques and Carbon Dating

Radioactivity Radioactivity is discovered by French scientist Becquerel in 1896. Substances which emits radiation is known as radioactive substances and this property of substances to emit radiation is called as radioactivity. example : Uranium exhibit radioactivity. Rutherford conduct some experiments with radioactive substances and his observations are as follows- 1. Rays which turned toward negative electrode is known …

Atomic Number, Mass Number, Isotopes and Isobars

Atomic Number Number of protons present in nucleus of atom of an element is known as atomic number. It is denoted by (z) example : Carbon have 6 protons so its atomic number is 6 (z = 6) For neutral atom,  atomic number (z) = number of protons (p) = number of electron (e) Number of …

Bohr Bury Scheme & Valence Electrons and Valency

Bohr Bury  Scheme   Distribution of Electrons in Various Orbits  In 1921, Bohr and Bury gives some laws for distribution of electrons in various orbits, which are called as Bohr-Bury Scheme.  Rules of Bohr Bury scheme are as follows- 1. Maximum number of electron in any shell should be 2n2 , where n is serial number of …

Project on Barcode

Project on Barcode What is Barcode ? Barcode is machine readable representation of information related to product to which it is attached. Types of Barcode ? Barcodes are of two types i.e. 1D and 2D 1.       One dimensional (1D) Barcode :                                                              It is also known as linear barcode. Originally it is prepared by changing …

Periodic Properties of the Elements

Periodic Properties of the Elements Periodic properties are the properties of the elements which depend on their electronic configuration and these properties changes on moving down in the group and on moving left to right in the period of the periodic table. Some periodic properties are atomic size, electron affinity, ionization energy, metallic and non …

Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids

METALS            These are more than 78% of all known elements. And present in the left side of periodic table. ·        These are  usually solids at room temp.(meaning (Hg) is exception)                                                                                                   ·        This have high melting points . ·        Boiling point. ·        These are metallic (can be flattened into thin sheet by hammer)  and ductile …

11 Class Chapter 3- Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Classification of Elements Mendeleev periodic law  :-                                        Mendeleev explanation that properties of  the elements are periodic function of their atomic weights. Modern  periodic  law  :-                                         Moseley (1913) according to this law physical &  chemical  properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. s – Block elements: –                              Elements of …