Definition of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons are the type of hydrocarbons in which various carbon atoms joint together to form an open chain.
We study about aliphatic hydrocarbons under organic chemistry. Aliphatic compound is an aliphatic hydrocarbon compound containing Carbon atoms and Hydrogen atoms. Also aliphatic compound contains carbon and hydrogen in open straight or branched chain. We can also say that aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds are open chain compounds and do not contain aromatic rings.
To understand in better way we take example of simplest aliphatic hydrocarbon i.e. Methane (CH4). Methan gas is a aliphatic compound containing 4 hydrogen atoms attached to a carbon atom.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons also contain some other atoms along with hydrogen that bound to carbon. These atoms are oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur but percentage of bounding of these atoms to carbon atom as compared to hydrogen is very less.
Classification of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons can be classified into two categories i.e. saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Saturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons are the hydrocarbons in which all the carbon valancies are fully saturated. Means all 4 carbon valancies are fully satisfied by 4 carbon atoms or groups. These type of compounds contains single covalent C-C & C-H type of bonds. These type of compounds are generally not react with most compounds hence called as paraffins. IUPAC name for this class of compounds is alkanes. Example: Methane, Ethane, Propane etc.
Unsaturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons are the hydrocarbons in which all the carbon valancies are not fully saturated. Means all 4 carbon valancies are not fully satisfied, hence they contain carbon carbon double bond or carbon carbon triple bond. Means 2 carbon atoms are linked by double or triple bond. So this class of compounds do not contain maximum possible hydrogen atoms therefore, they are unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Unsaturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons can be subdivided into two grops i.e. alkenes or alkynes.
Alkenes are the Unsaturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons containing carbon carbon double bond. Means 2 carbon atoms are linked together by double bond. Example: Olefins, Ethylene, Propene, etc.
Alkynes are the Unsaturated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons containing carbon carbon triple bond. Means 2 carbon atoms are linked together by triple bond. Example: Acetylenes, Ethyne, Propyne, etc.
Do you know these hydrocarbons are extracted from ground mother earth. And if this extraction is not done properly, it gives many side effects.
Side Effects of Hydrocarbon Extraction
Hydrocarbon are extracted by fracking proces. Some of the side effects of this is contamination of water with methane and drilling chemicals. Emission of explosive and climate warming methane gas, cutting of Forrest for extraction
Books to Learn More About Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
1. Organic Chemistry, Volume One: Part I: Aliphatic Compounds Part II: Alicyclic Compounds
2. Densities of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Alkenes, Alkadienes, Alkynes, and Miscellaneous Compounds (Landolt-Börnstein: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology – New Series)
3. An Evaluation of Formate as an Electron Donor to Facilitate Palladium-Catalyzed Destruction of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons