Definition of Amino Acid
Amino acid is a simple organic compound that contains a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
What are Amino Acids?
Amino acids are organic compounds containing carboxyl (—COOH) and amino (—NH2) functional group with side chain, this side chain is specific to amino acid. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen are some important element which present in amino acids. Some other elements may also present in side chain of some amino acids.
Importance of Amino Acids
As we all know that our body contains large amount of proteins also these proteins play important role in biological processes happening within human body. Amino acids are building blocks of these proteins means proteins contain amino acids.
Amino acids play key role in many body functions like cell structure, storage and transport of nutrients, proper functioning of organs, proper functioning of glands, proper functioning of arteries, proper functioning of tendons, healing of wounds, repairing tissues, removal of metabolic waste etc.
There are so many amino acids present in nature but gene codes only 20 amino acid. Essential amino acids are type of amino acid which can not produced by human body so they are needed in dietary food. Two amino acids combines by a peptide bond to form dipeptide.
And amino acids further added to grow chain of peptides to form poly-peptide or protein.
Areas of use of Amino Acids
Supply of amino acids to the body provides repair treatment means nourish human skin, nails and hair result in delay aging process naturally. Supply of amino acids strengthens connective tissue to keep our skin smooth, shine, glowing and elastic. Creatine play very important role to keep skin healthy and this creatine is made up of amino acids like Arginine and Methionine. Glutamine amino acid is responsible to regulate acid-base balance as a result it supports healthy skin. Carnitine is a di-peptide containing two essential amino acids lysine and Methionine. Carnitine helps in burning fat to produce energy so also known as fat burner so also added in fitness and wellness program.
Amino acid Methionine helps in cartilage formation, also Methionine is essential amino acid so do not get produced within human body but need to be provided from outside i.e. from diet or food. Methionine also donates sulphur which helps in joint cartilage creation. Along with amino acids vitamins and minerals are also required for healthy joints.
Arginine amino acid helps in lowering the cholesterol level.
In diabetes person’s blood sugar level get high than normal level due to many reasons like pancreas do not produce enough insulin, insulin resistance etc. Amino acid Arginine help in reducing insulin resistance by increasing sensitivity of our body cells toward insulin so insulin get easily absorbed.
5. Fat Burning
Goal of weight loss is achieved by fat burning. Human growth hormone is an important fat burning hormone and amino acids Arginine, Glutamine and Methionine helps to secrete this hormone.
6. Hair and Nails
Amino acid Methionine prevents hair loss and strengthens nails. Amino acid Glutamine and Arginine increases hair growth.
• Below pH 2.2 amino acid have net charge of +1 due to the predominant form of amino acid have a neutral carboxylic acid functional group and a positive α-ammonium.
• Above pH 9.4 amino acid have net charge of -1 due to the predominant form of amino acid have a negative carboxylate and neutral α-amino group.
• At pH between 2.2 and 9.4 amino acid have net charge of ZERO due to the predominant form of amino acid have both a negative carboxylate and a positive α-ammonium functional group and this molecular state of amino acid is known as a Zwitterion.
Isoelectric point is a pH at which molecule carry zero net electric charge. In case of amino acids at pH between 2.2 and 9.4 amino acid have net electric charge of ZERO so this range of pH gives Isoelectric Point of Amino Acids as shown in below image.
List of Amino Acids
Essential Amino Acids
Essential amino acids are amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the human body so these amino acids must be supplied in diet. The nine essential amino acids, which human body cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, and Histidine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- F, V, T, W, M, L, I, K, H.
Six additional amino acids are measured conditionally essential in the human diet. These six amino acids are Arginine, Cysteine, Glycine, Glutamine, Proline, and Tyrosine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- R, C, G, Q, P, Y.
Five amino acids are not essential in humans because they fully synthesized in the body. These five amino acids are Alanine, Aspartic Acid, Asparagine, Glutamic Acid, and Serine i.e. in one letter for amino acids are as follows- A, D, N, E, S.