BSc1Year Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure

Atom:

          In Greek Atom means not divided. In 1803 john Dalton made a famous theory atomic theory according to this theory “matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.” But in 1897 Sir J.J. Thomson proved experimentally that atoms are made of charged particles called electrons. And in the beginning of 20th century many scientists like Lord Rutherford, E. Goldstein proved that atom is not a smallest particle but is made up of electron, protons and neutrons.

De-Broglie’s equation:  
According to the plank’s photon of light having energy E and frequency n.
Then               E = hn                        …………………………………………….(1)
According to Einstein Mass, energy relation is
                        E = mc2                             ………………………………………(2)
Where c is velocity of light
Combining both above equations (1) & (2) we get
                                                    hn = mc2
Then                                            
 Or                                   
Or                                     
This equation for photon, when we put v in place of velocity of light c it becomes.
                                               
This equation is known as de-Broglie equation.
           
Since h is constant and p is momentum (mv) of particle.
Then                          
de-Broglie equation is applicable to electron, proton, neutron, atoms, molecules etc. and is also applicable to calculate wavelength of moving material particles if velocity is known.

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