Category «10th Class Science Notes»

10th Class Science Notes

10 Class- Periodic Classification of Elements

Periodic Classification of Elements In year of 1800 about 30 elements were known but at present we know about 114 elements. All these elements have different properties. So to study about these elements easily, scientists start searching some patterns in the properties to arrange these elements. Early Attempts in the Classification of Elements                                                                    This …

10 Class- Carbon and its Compounds

Carbon and Its Compounds Allotropes of Carbon – Fulleren-Diamond-Graphite ·             Instead of gaining and loosing electrons, carbon shares its 4-electrons with another element or carbon to form molecule. ·             Covalent bonds are formed as a result of sharing of electrons. Example- H2, O2, N2. Covalent compounds have low melting point and boiling point due to …

10 Class- Metals and Non-Metals

Metals and Non-Metals Metals             Metals are the solid materials which are typically hard, malleable, ductile and conduct heat and electricity, and also posses metallic lusture. Example- Iron, Gold, Aluminium, Silver, Copper etc. Non-metals                     Nonmetals are chemical elements which lacks metallic properties. Non metals are either solids or gases except Bromine (Br2), which occurs …

10 Class- Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids Bases and Salts ·       Natural indicator of acids and bases – Litmus, Turmeric ·       Synthetic indicator of acids and bases – Methyl Orange, Phenolphthalein ·       Olfactory indicators of acids and bases – Odor of these substance changes in acids and bases. pH scale for Acid Neutral and Alkaline (or Base) & Acid Base strength …

10th Class- Periodic Classification of Elements Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-2

Periodic Classification of Elements Modern Periodic Table                              Henry Moseley in 1913, after performing many experiments proves that atomic number is more fundamental property than atomic mass of an element. So he prepare periodic table on the basis of atomic number means elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic number in Modern Periodic …

10th Class- Periodic Classification of Elements Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-1

Periodic Classification of Elements In year of 1800 about 30 elements were known but at present we know about 114 elements. All these elements have different properties. So to study about these elements easily, scientists start searching some patterns in the properties to arrange these elements. Early Attempts in the Classification of Elements                                                                    This …

10th Class- Carbon and its Compounds Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-3

Class 10th Chapter – Carbon and Its Compounds  Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds                                                           Carbon compounds show different chemical properties and some of them are study here- 1.    Combustion Carbon burns in the presence of air (Oxygen i.e. O2) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), heat and light. This reaction is oxidation reaction. Saturated hydrocarbon gives …

10th Class- Carbon and its Compounds Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-2

Class 10th Chapter – Carbon and Its Compounds  Chemistry of Bonding between Carbon and other atoms                              Some elements (like halogens, sulpher, oxygen, nitrogen) replace hydrogen from carbon compounds. These elements which replace hydrogen are called as heteroatom. This heteroatom’s may be present in single or group form and gives specific property to carbon compound …

10th Class- Metals and Non-Metals Part- 3

10th Class Chapter- Metals and Non-Metals Occurrence of Metals                                               Maximum metals occur in earth’s crust and some metal occur in sea water. Metals and its compounds exist as minerals and if the percentages of metals in minerals are large then they are known as ores. 1.    Extraction of Metals Reactivity series is very helpful …

10th Class- Metals and Non-Metals Part- 2

10th Class Chapter- Metals and Non-Metals Reactivity Series of Metals                                               Reactivity series is the series in which metals are arranged as per order of decreasing activity. This reactivity series is developed after performing so many displacement experiments. This series is also called as activity series. K Pottasium More Reactive Reactivity Decreaseswhen we moveTop …

10th Class- Carbon and its Compounds Xth Class Chemistry Notes Part-1

Class 10th Chapter – Carbon and Its Compounds ·             Instead of gaining and loosing electrons, carbon shares its 4-electrons with another element or carbon to form molecule. ·             Covalent bonds are formed as a result of sharing of electrons. Example- H2, O2, N2. Covalent compounds have low melting point and boiling point due to small …

10th Class- Metals and Non-Metals Part- 1

10th Class Chapter- Metals and Non-Metals Metals             Metals are the solid materials which are typically hard, malleable, ductile and conduct heat and electricity, and also posses metallic lusture. Example- Iron, Gold, Aluminium, Silver, Copper etc. Non-metals                     Nonmetals are chemical elements which lacks metallic properties. Non metals are either solids or gases except Bromine …

10 Class- Acids, Bases and Salts part-1

10th Class Chapter- Acids Bases and Salts ·       Natural indicator of acids and bases – Litmus, Turmeric ·       Synthetic indicator of acids and bases – Methyl Orange, Phenolphthalein ·       Olfactory indicators of acids and bases – Odor of these substance changes in acids and bases. What is Acid? Acids are the chemicals which can donate …

10 Class- Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chemical Reactions and Equations ·       Every chemical change is a chemical reaction. ·       General observation to identify whether a chemical reaction take place or not- 1.    Change in state. 2.    Change in color. 3.    Evolution of gas. 4.    Change in temperature. Chemical Equations: Any equation which describes the change of reactants to products is called …

Discovery of Electron

Discovery of Electron Sir J.J.Thomson and W.Crooks did many experiments with discharge tube for the discovery of electron. Discharge tube have tube like shape made from glass with two electrodes (Cathode -ve and Anode +ve) in vacuum created by vacuum pump connected to discharge tube. High electric potential is applied between two electrodes.   Discharge …