Covalent Bond and Formal Charge (F.C.)

Covalent Bond

Covalent Bonds are the bonds which are formed  by sharing of electrons.

·        When sharing of one pair of electron takes place is known as single covalent bond.
·        When sharing of two pair of electrons takes place is known as double bond.
·        When sharing of three pair of electron takes place is known as triple bond.

Formal Charge (F.C.)

For polyatomic molecule or ion, formal charge of an atom in a Lewis structure = [Total no. of                 Valence electron in free Atom] – [total no. of non bonding (lone- pair) elements]- 1/2[total no of bonding (shared) electrons]
Ex  :-  Lewis structure of O3 (ozone molecule)

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