Category «Physical Chemistry Notes»

BSc2Year Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Thermodynamics                            study of the inter-relations of various forms of energy in a system is called thermodynamics. Limitation of thermodynamics         i.            laws of thermodynamics are not applicable to small particles like individual atoms or molecule, but laws can be applied to …

What is X rays?

What is X rays?X-Rays are electromagnetic radiation discovered by WK Roentgen in 1895. X rays are also known as Roentgen rays. Why x rays are used in medical science? X rays are used in medical science because x rays have high penetrating power.

Transition state theory or Activated complex theory

Transition state theory or Activated complex theory It is more modern theory proposed in 1932 by Pelzer & Manger later developed by Erying and colleagues. 1. Rate equation formation using the statistical mechanics to describe equilibrium between activated complex and reactant. 2. Rate equation formulation as per thermodynamical state function to describe transition state complex …

what is molarity ?

What is molarity?  Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in litre.Where mole is weight in gram devided by molecular weight.Molarity is chemistry terminology. Molarity (M) :-                                  No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in litre.     M = strength in gram …

DEBYE HUCKEL THEORY

Debye Huckel Theory This theory is based on 3 assumptions that how the ions act in the solution 1. in the solution electrolytes completely dissossiate into ions 2. electrolyte solution are very dilute of order of 0.01M 3. each ion surrounded by ion of the opposite charge on the average.

12 Class Chapter 5- Surface chemistry

                            Surface Chemistry Adsorption: –                    The accumulation of molecular species at the surface rather than bulk of solid or liquid is called Adsorption. Adsorbate: –                  The molecular species or substance which accumulate at the surface. Adsorbent: –                  …

12 Class Chapter 3- Electrochemistry

ELECTROCHEMISTRY Electrolysis:                     It is the process of decomposition of an electrolyte by the passage of electricity through its aqueous solution or molten state. Faraday’s first law of electrolysis:                                                         In a chemical reaction, the amount of any substance deposited or liberated is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through it.                                     W …

12 Class Chapter 2- Solution

SOLUTION                                                           Solution:–                 A solution is homogeneous mixture of two or more chemically non-reacting substances, whose composition can be varied within certain limits. Expressing concentration of solutions 1.      Percentage:- =>  mass percentage (%) of a component  (W/W)                   = Mass of the component in solution*100 / Total mass of the solution =>  volume percentage …

12 Class Chapter 1- Solid State

Solid State Chemistry Solid: –          Matter which posses rigidity having definite shape &volume is called solid. Types of solid:- 1.      Crystalline Solid :- Eg:- Metals And Non metals 2.      Amorphous Solid :- Eg:- Rubber ,Glass ,Plastic Difference and Comparison between of characteristics Crystalline Solid: –                             Contain regular arrangement having short …

11 Class Chapter 2- Structure of Atom

Atomic  Theory of matter:-                                             According to this theory , atom is the ultimate particle of matter , also known as Dalton’s  Atomic theory (1808). Cathode ray discharge tube experiments: –  1.     Cathode rays start from cathode and move toward anode. 2.     These rays are not visible but there behaviour can be observed with fluorescent …