The basic principle of titration is “concentration of a substance in solution is measured by adding the equal amount of equivalents of a substance present in solution of known concentration”.
Procedure of Volumetric Analysis or Titration
2. Now choose a substance which will react completely and rapidly with the analyte (above weighted substance which is to be analyzed), and prepare standard solution (standard solution have known concentration) of this substance.
3. Fill burette with standard solution. Add this standard solution (known solution) slowly-slowly to the flask containing analyte (unknown solution). This process is known as titration. Solution present in burette is known as titrant.
4. Continue titration, means adding known solution to unknown solution till reaction completes. Remember reaction completes when all chemical constituents of analyte react with all required chemical constituents of known substance, this point when reaction completes is known as equivalence point. An indicator is added to unknown solution to detect this equivalence point. This indicator helps the chemist to visually identify the end point of titration as at end point (or near end point) indicator changes its color.
5. After getting end point, measure the volume of known standard solution consumed to get end point from burette readings.
6. Now we know the molarity of standard solution, Volume of standard solution, weight in grams of unknown solution, Volume of unknown solution, and we can calculate number of moles of titrant and then we utilize the knowledge of the equation of reaction to get the number of moles of the analyte present in unknown solution.